Tag: Priority Scheduling

CPU Scheduling | Practice Problems | Numericals

CPU Scheduling Algorithms-

 

Various CPU scheduling algorithms are-

 

PRACTICE PROBLEMS BASED ON CPU SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS-

 

Problem-01:

 

Consider three process, all arriving at time zero, with total execution time of 10, 20 and 30 units respectively. Each process spends the first 20% of execution time doing I/O, the next 70% of time doing computation, and the last 10% of time doing I/O again. The operating system uses a shortest remaining compute time first scheduling algorithm and schedules a new process either when the running process gets blocked on I/O or when the running process finishes its compute burst. Assume that all I/O operations can be overlapped as much as possible. For what percentage of does the CPU remain idle?

  1. 0%
  2. 10.6%
  3. 30.0%
  4. 89.4%

 

Solution-

 

According to question, we have-

 

Total Burst Time I/O Burst CPU Burst I/O Burst
Process P1 10 2 7 1
Process P2 20 4 14 2
Process P3 30 6 21 3

 

The scheduling algorithm used is Shortest Remaining Time First.

 

Gantt Chart-

 

 

Percentage of time CPU remains idle

= (5 / 47) x 100

= 10.638%

Thus, Option (B) is correct.

 

Problem-02:

 

Consider the set of 4 processes whose arrival time and burst time are given below-

 

Process No. Arrival Time Burst Time
CPU Burst I/O Burst CPU Burst
P1 0 3 2 2
P2 0 2 4 1
P3 2 1 3 2
P4 5 2 2 1

 

If the CPU scheduling policy is Shortest Remaining Time First, calculate the average waiting time and average turn around time.

 

Solution-

 

Gantt Chart-

 

 

Now, we know-

  • Turn Around time = Exit time – Arrival time
  • Waiting time = Turn Around time – Burst time

 

Also read- Various Times Of Process

 

Process Id Exit time Turn Around time Waiting time
P1 11 11 – 0 = 11 11 – (3+2) = 6
P2 7 7 – 0 = 7 7 – (2+1) = 4
P3 9 9 – 2 = 7 7 – (1+2) = 4
P4 16 16 – 5 = 11 11 – (2+1) = 8

 

Now,

  • Average Turn Around time = (11 + 7 + 7 + 11) / 4 = 36 / 4 = 9 units
  • Average waiting time = (6 + 4 + 4 + 8) / 4 = 22 / 5 = 4.4 units

 

Problem-03:

 

Consider the set of 4 processes whose arrival time and burst time are given below-

 

Process No. Arrival Time Priority Burst Time
CPU Burst I/O Burst CPU Burst
P1 0 2 1 5 3
P2 2 3 3 3 1
P3 3 1 2 3 1

 

If the CPU scheduling policy is Priority Scheduling, calculate the average waiting time and average turn around time. (Lower number means higher priority)

 

Solution-

 

The scheduling algorithm used is Priority Scheduling.

 

Gantt Chart-

 

 

Now, we know-

  • Turn Around time = Exit time – Arrival time
  • Waiting time = Turn Around time – Burst time

 

Process Id Exit time Turn Around time Waiting time
P1 10 10 – 0 = 10 10 – (1+3) = 6
P2 15 15 – 2 = 13 13 – (3+1) = 9
P3 9 9 – 3 = 6 6 – (2+1) = 3

 

Now,

  • Average Turn Around time = (10 + 13 + 6) / 3 = 29 / 3 = 9.67 units
  • Average waiting time = (6 + 9 + 3) / 3 = 18 / 3 = 6 units

 

Next Article- Introduction to Process Synchronization

 

Get more notes and other study material of Operating System.

Watch video lectures by visiting our YouTube channel LearnVidFun.

Priority Scheduling | CPU Scheduling | Examples

Priority Scheduling-

 

In Priority Scheduling,

  • Out of all the available processes, CPU is assigned to the process having the highest priority.
  • In case of a tie, it is broken by FCFS Scheduling.

 

 

  • Priority Scheduling can be used in both preemptive and non-preemptive mode.

 

Advantages-

 

  • It considers the priority of the processes and allows the important processes to run first.
  • Priority scheduling in preemptive mode is best suited for real time operating system.

 

Disadvantages-

 

  • Processes with lesser priority may starve for CPU.
  • There is no idea of response time and waiting time.

 

Important Notes-

 

Note-01:

 

  • The waiting time for the process having the highest priority will always be zero in preemptive mode.
  • The waiting time for the process having the highest priority may not be zero in non-preemptive mode.

 

Note-02:

 

Priority scheduling in preemptive and non-preemptive mode behaves exactly same under following conditions-

  • The arrival time of all the processes is same
  • All the processes become available

 

PRACTICE PROBLEMS BASED ON PRIORITY SCHEDULING-

 

Problem-01:

 

Consider the set of 5 processes whose arrival time and burst time are given below-

 

Process Id Arrival time Burst time Priority
P1 0 4 2
P2 1 3 3
P3 2 1 4
P4 3 5 5
P5 4 2 5

 

If the CPU scheduling policy is priority non-preemptive, calculate the average waiting time and average turn around time. (Higher number represents higher priority)

 

Solution-

 

Gantt Chart-

 

 

Now, we know-

  • Turn Around time = Exit time – Arrival time
  • Waiting time = Turn Around time – Burst time

 

Also read- Various Times of Process

 

Process Id Exit time Turn Around time Waiting time
P1 4 4 – 0 = 4 4 – 4 = 0
P2 15 15 – 1 = 14 14 – 3 = 11
P3 12 12 – 2 = 10 10 – 1 = 9
P4 9 9 – 3 = 6 6 – 5 = 1
P5 11 11 – 4 = 7 7 – 2 = 5

 

Now,

  • Average Turn Around time = (4 + 14 + 10 + 6 + 7) / 5 = 41 / 5 = 8.2 unit
  • Average waiting time = (0 + 11 + 9 + 1 + 5) / 5 = 26 / 5 = 5.2 unit

 

Problem-02:

 

Consider the set of 5 processes whose arrival time and burst time are given below-

 

Process Id Arrival time Burst time Priority
P1 0 4 2
P2 1 3 3
P3 2 1 4
P4 3 5 5
P5 4 2 5

 

If the CPU scheduling policy is priority preemptive, calculate the average waiting time and average turn around time. (Higher number represents higher priority)

 

Solution-

 

Gantt Chart-

 

 

Now, we know-

  • Turn Around time = Exit time – Arrival time
  • Waiting time = Turn Around time – Burst time

 

Process Id Exit time Turn Around time Waiting time
P1 15 15 – 0 = 15 15 – 4 = 11
P2 12 12 – 1 = 11 11 – 3 = 8
P3 3 3 – 2 = 1 1 – 1 = 0
P4 8 8 – 3 = 5 5 – 5 = 0
P5 10 10 – 4 = 6 6 – 2 = 4

 

Now,

  • Average Turn Around time = (15 + 11 + 1 + 5 + 6) / 5 = 38 / 5 = 7.6 unit
  • Average waiting time = (11 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 4) / 5 = 23 / 5 = 4.6 unit

 

To gain better understanding about Priority Scheduling,

Watch this Video Lecture

 

Next Article- Practice Problems On CPU Scheduling Algorithms

 

Get more notes and other study material of Operating System.

Watch video lectures by visiting our YouTube channel LearnVidFun.