**Handshaking Theorem-**

Handshaking Theorem is also known as **Handshaking Lemma** or **Sum of Degree Theorem**.

In Graph Theory,
Handshaking Theorem states in any given graph, Sum of degree of all the vertices is twice the number of edges contained in it. |

The following conclusions may be drawn from the Handshaking Theorem.

In any graph,

- The sum of degree of all the vertices is always even.
- The sum of degree of all the vertices with odd degree is always even.
- The number of vertices with odd degree are always even.

**PRACTICE PROBLEMS BASED ON HANDSHAKING THEOREM IN GRAPH THEORY-**

**Problem-01:**

A simple graph G has 24 edges and degree of each vertex is 4. Find the number of vertices.

**Solution-**

Given-

- Number of edges = 24
- Degree of each vertex = 4

Let number of vertices in the graph = n.

Using Handshaking Theorem, we have-

Sum of degree of all vertices = 2 x Number of edges

Substituting the values, we get-

n x 4 = 2 x 24

n = 2 x 6

∴ n = 12

Thus, Number of vertices in the graph = 12.

**Problem-02:**

A graph contains 21 edges, 3 vertices of degree 4 and all other vertices of degree 2. Find total number of vertices.

**Solution-**

Given-

- Number of edges = 21
- Number of degree 4 vertices = 3
- All other vertices are of degree 2

Let number of vertices in the graph = n.

Using Handshaking Theorem, we have-

Sum of degree of all vertices = 2 x Number of edges

Substituting the values, we get-

3 x 4 + (n-3) x 2 = 2 x 21

12 + 2n – 6 = 42

2n = 42 – 6

2n = 36

∴ n = 18

Thus, Total number of vertices in the graph = 18.

**Problem-03:**

A simple graph contains 35 edges, four vertices of degree 5, five vertices of degree 4 and four vertices of degree 3. Find the number of vertices with degree 2.

**Solution-**

Given-

- Number of edges = 35
- Number of degree 5 vertices = 4
- Number of degree 4 vertices = 5
- Number of degree 3 vertices = 4

Let number of degree 2 vertices in the graph = n.

Using Handshaking Theorem, we have-

Sum of degree of all vertices = 2 x Number of edges

Substituting the values, we get-

4 x 5 + 5 x 4 + 4 x 3 + n x 2 = 2 x 35

20 + 20 + 12 + 2n = 70

52 + 2n = 70

2n = 70 – 52

2n = 18

∴ n = 9

Thus, Number of degree 2 vertices in the graph = 9.

**Problem-04:**

A graph has 24 edges and degree of each vertex is k, then which of the following is possible number of vertices?

- 20
- 15
- 10
- 8

**Solution-**

Given-

- Number of edges = 24
- Degree of each vertex = k

Let number of vertices in the graph = n.

Using Handshaking Theorem, we have-

Sum of degree of all vertices = 2 x Number of edges

Substituting the values, we get-

n x k = 2 x 24

k = 48 / n

Now,

- It is obvious that the degree of any vertex must be a whole number.
- So in the above equation, only those values of ‘n’ are permissible which gives the whole value of ‘k’.

Now, let us check all the options one by one-

- For n = 20, k = 2.4 which is not allowed.
- For n = 15, k = 3.2 which is not allowed.
- For n = 10, k = 4.8 which is not allowed.
- For n = 8, k = 6 which is allowed.

Thus, Option (D) is correct.

To gain better understanding about Handshaking Theorem,

**Next Article-** **Graph Isomorphism**

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