Tag: Floyd Warshall Algorithm Explanation

Floyd Warshall Algorithm | Example | Time Complexity

Floyd Warshall Algorithm-

 

  • Floyd Warshall Algorithm is a famous algorithm.
  • It is used to solve All Pairs Shortest Path Problem.
  • It computes the shortest path between every pair of vertices of the given graph.
  • Floyd Warshall Algorithm is an example of dynamic programming approach.

 

Also Read- Shortest Path Problem

 

Advantages-

 

Floyd Warshall Algorithm has the following main advantages-

  • It is extremely simple.
  • It is easy to implement.

 

Algorithm-

 

Floyd Warshall Algorithm is as shown below-

 

Create a |V| x |V| matrix               // It represents the distance between every pair of vertices as given

For each cell (i,j) in M do-

    if i = = j

        M[ i ][ j ] = 0                 // For all diagonal elements, value = 0

    if (i , j) is an edge in E

        M[ i ][ j ] = weight(i,j)       // If there exists a direct edge between the vertices, value = weight of edge

    else

        M[ i ][ j ] = infinity          // If there is no direct edge between the vertices, value = ∞

for k from 1 to |V|

    for i from 1 to |V|

        for j from 1 to |V|

            if M[ i ][ j ] > M[ i ][ k ] + M[ k ][ j ]
            M[ i ][ j ] = M[ i ][ k ] + M[ k ][ j ]

 

Time Complexity-

 

  • Floyd Warshall Algorithm consists of three loops over all the nodes.
  • The inner most loop consists of only constant complexity operations.
  • Hence, the asymptotic complexity of Floyd Warshall algorithm is O(n3).
  • Here, n is the number of nodes in the given graph.

 

When Floyd Warshall Algorithm Is Used?

 

  • Floyd Warshall Algorithm is best suited for dense graphs.
  • This is because its complexity depends only on the number of vertices in the given graph.
  • For sparse graphs, Johnson’s Algorithm is more suitable.

 

PRACTICE PROBLEM BASED ON FLOYD WARSHALL ALGORITHM-

 

Problem-

 

Consider the following directed weighted graph-

 

 

Using Floyd Warshall Algorithm, find the shortest path distance between every pair of vertices.

 

Solution-

 

Step-01:

 

  • Remove all the self loops and parallel edges (keeping the lowest weight edge) from the graph.
  • In the given graph, there are neither self edges nor parallel edges.

 

Step-02:

 

  • Write the initial distance matrix.
  • It represents the distance between every pair of vertices in the form of given weights.
  • For diagonal elements (representing self-loops), distance value = 0.
  • For vertices having a direct edge between them, distance value = weight of that edge.
  • For vertices having no direct edge between them, distance value = ∞.

 

Initial distance matrix for the given graph is-

 

 

Step-03:

 

Using Floyd Warshall Algorithm, write the following 4 matrices-

 

 

To learn how to write these matrices, watch this video here.

The last matrix D4 represents the shortest path distance between every pair of vertices.

 

Remember-

 

  • In the above problem, there are 4 vertices in the given graph.
  • So, there will be total 4 matrices of order 4 x 4 in the solution excluding the initial distance matrix.
  • Diagonal elements of each matrix will always be 0.

 

To gain better understanding about Floyd Warshall Algorithm,

Watch this Video Lecture

 

Next Article- Knapsack Problem

 

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