**CPU Scheduling Algorithms-**

Various CPU scheduling algorithms are-

**PRACTICE PROBLEMS BASED ON CPU SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS-**

**Problem-01:**

Consider three process, all arriving at time zero, with total execution time of 10, 20 and 30 units respectively. Each process spends the first 20% of execution time doing I/O, the next 70% of time doing computation, and the last 10% of time doing I/O again. The operating system uses a shortest remaining compute time first scheduling algorithm and schedules a new process either when the running process gets blocked on I/O or when the running process finishes its compute burst. Assume that all I/O operations can be overlapped as much as possible. For what percentage of does the CPU remain idle?

- 0%
- 10.6%
- 30.0%
- 89.4%

**Solution-**

According to question, we have-

Total Burst Time | I/O Burst | CPU Burst | I/O Burst | |

Process P1 | 10 | 2 | 7 | 1 |

Process P2 | 20 | 4 | 14 | 2 |

Process P3 | 30 | 6 | 21 | 3 |

The scheduling algorithm used is Shortest Remaining Time First.

**Gantt Chart-**

Percentage of time CPU remains idle

= (5 / 47) x 100

= 10.638%

Thus, Option (B) is correct.

**Problem-02:**

Consider the set of 4 processes whose arrival time and burst time are given below-

Process No. | Arrival Time | Burst Time | ||

CPU Burst | I/O Burst | CPU Burst | ||

P1 | 0 | 3 | 2 | 2 |

P2 | 0 | 2 | 4 | 1 |

P3 | 2 | 1 | 3 | 2 |

P4 | 5 | 2 | 2 | 1 |

If the CPU scheduling policy is Shortest Remaining Time First, calculate the average waiting time and average turn around time.

**Solution-**

**Gantt Chart-**

Now, we know-

- Turn Around time = Exit time – Arrival time
- Waiting time = Turn Around time – Burst time

**Also read-****Various Times Of Process**

Process Id | Exit time | Turn Around time | Waiting time |

P1 | 11 | 11 – 0 = 11 | 11 – (3+2) = 6 |

P2 | 7 | 7 – 0 = 7 | 7 – (2+1) = 4 |

P3 | 9 | 9 – 2 = 7 | 7 – (1+2) = 4 |

P4 | 16 | 16 – 5 = 11 | 11 – (2+1) = 8 |

Now,

- Average Turn Around time = (11 + 7 + 7 + 11) / 4 = 36 / 4 = 9 units
- Average waiting time = (6 + 4 + 4 + 8) / 4 = 22 / 5 = 4.4 units

**Problem-03:**

Consider the set of 4 processes whose arrival time and burst time are given below-

Process No. | Arrival Time | Priority | Burst Time | ||

CPU Burst | I/O Burst | CPU Burst | |||

P1 | 0 | 2 | 1 | 5 | 3 |

P2 | 2 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 1 |

P3 | 3 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 1 |

If the CPU scheduling policy is Priority Scheduling, calculate the average waiting time and average turn around time. (Lower number means higher priority)

**Solution-**

The scheduling algorithm used is Priority Scheduling.

**Gantt Chart-**

Now, we know-

- Turn Around time = Exit time – Arrival time
- Waiting time = Turn Around time – Burst time

Process Id | Exit time | Turn Around time | Waiting time |

P1 | 10 | 10 – 0 = 10 | 10 – (1+3) = 6 |

P2 | 15 | 15 – 2 = 13 | 13 – (3+1) = 9 |

P3 | 9 | 9 – 3 = 6 | 6 – (2+1) = 3 |

Now,

- Average Turn Around time = (10 + 13 + 6) / 3 = 29 / 3 = 9.67 units
- Average waiting time = (6 + 9 + 3) / 3 = 18 / 3 = 6 units

**Next Article-****Introduction to Process Synchronization**

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