**Line Drawing Algorithms-**

In computer graphics, popular algorithms used to generate lines are-

- Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) Line Drawing Algorithm
- Bresenham Line Drawing Algorithm
- Mid Point Line Drawing Algorithm

In this article, we will discuss about DDA Algorithm.

**DDA Algorithm-**

DDA Algorithm is the simplest line drawing algorithm.

Given the starting and ending coordinates of a line, DDA Algorithm attempts to generate the points between the starting and ending coordinates. |

**Procedure-**

Given-

- Starting coordinates = (X
_{0}, Y_{0}) - Ending coordinates = (X
_{n}, Y_{n})

The points generation using DDA Algorithm involves the following steps-

**Step-01:**

Calculate ΔX, ΔY and M from the given input.

These parameters are calculated as-

- ΔX = X
_{n}– X_{0} - ΔY =Y
_{n}– Y_{0} - M = ΔY / ΔX

**Step-02:**

Find the number of steps or points in between the starting and ending coordinates.

if (absolute (ΔX) > absolute (ΔY))

Steps = absolute (ΔX);

else

Steps = absolute (ΔY);

**Step-03:**

Suppose the current point is (X_{p}, Y_{p}) and the next point is (X_{p+1}, Y_{p+1}).

Find the next point by following the below three cases-

**Step-04:**

Keep repeating Step-03 until the end point is reached or the number of generated new points (including the starting and ending points) equals to the steps count.

**PRACTICE PROBLEMS BASED ON DDA ALGORITHM-**

**Problem-01:**

Calculate the points between the starting point (5, 6) and ending point (8, 12).

**Solution-**

Given-

- Starting coordinates = (X
_{0}, Y_{0}) = (5, 6) - Ending coordinates = (X
_{n}, Y_{n}) = (8, 12)

**Step-01:**

Calculate ΔX, ΔY and M from the given input.

- ΔX = X
_{n}– X_{0}= 8 – 5 = 3 - ΔY =Y
_{n}– Y_{0}= 12 – 6 = 6 - M = ΔY / ΔX = 6 / 3 = 2

**Step-02:**

Calculate the number of steps.

As |ΔX| < |ΔY| = 3 < 6, so number of steps = ΔY = 6

**Step-03:**

As M > 1, so case-03 is satisfied.

Now, Step-03 is executed until Step-04 is satisfied.

X_{p} | Y_{p} | X_{p+1} | Y_{p+1} | Round off (X_{p+1}, Y_{p+1}) |

5 | 6 | 5.5 | 7 | (6, 7) |

6 | 8 | (6, 8) | ||

6.5 | 9 | (7, 9) | ||

7 | 10 | (7, 10) | ||

7.5 | 11 | (8, 11) | ||

8 | 12 | (8, 12) |

**Problem-02:**

Calculate the points between the starting point (5, 6) and ending point (13, 10).

**Solution-**

Given-

- Starting coordinates = (X
_{0}, Y_{0}) = (5, 6) - Ending coordinates = (X
_{n}, Y_{n}) = (13, 10)

**Step-01:**

Calculate ΔX, ΔY and M from the given input.

- ΔX = X
_{n}– X_{0}= 13 – 5 = 8 - ΔY =Y
_{n}– Y_{0}= 10 – 6 = 4 - M = ΔY / ΔX = 4 / 8 = 0.50

**Step-02:**

Calculate the number of steps.

As |ΔX| > |ΔY| = 8 > 4, so number of steps = ΔX = 8

**Step-03:**

As M < 1, so case-01 is satisfied.

Now, Step-03 is executed until Step-04 is satisfied.

X_{p} | Y_{p} | X_{p+1} | Y_{p+1} | Round off (X_{p+1}, Y_{p+1}) |

5 | 6 | 6 | 6.5 | (6, 7) |

7 | 7 | (7, 7) | ||

8 | 7.5 | (8, 8) | ||

9 | 8 | (9, 8) | ||

10 | 8.5 | (10, 9) | ||

11 | 9 | (11, 9) | ||

12 | 9.5 | (12, 10) | ||

13 | 10 | (13, 10) |

**Problem-03:**

Calculate the points between the starting point (1, 7) and ending point (11, 17).

**Solution-**

Given-

- Starting coordinates = (X
_{0}, Y_{0}) = (1, 7) - Ending coordinates = (X
_{n}, Y_{n}) = (11, 17)

**Step-01:**

Calculate ΔX, ΔY and M from the given input.

- ΔX = X
_{n}– X_{0}= 11 – 1 = 10 - ΔY =Y
_{n}– Y_{0}= 17 – 7 = 10 - M = ΔY / ΔX = 10 / 10 = 1

**Step-02:**

Calculate the number of steps.

As |ΔX| = |ΔY| = 10 = 10, so number of steps = ΔX = ΔY = 10

**Step-03:**

As M = 1, so case-02 is satisfied.

Now, Step-03 is executed until Step-04 is satisfied.

X_{p} | Y_{p} | X_{p+1} | Y_{p+1} | Round off (X_{p+1}, Y_{p+1}) |

1 | 7 | 2 | 8 | (2, 8) |

3 | 9 | (3, 9) | ||

4 | 10 | (4, 10) | ||

5 | 11 | (5, 11) | ||

6 | 12 | (6, 12) | ||

7 | 13 | (7, 13) | ||

8 | 14 | (8, 14) | ||

9 | 15 | (9, 15) | ||

10 | 16 | (10, 16) | ||

11 | 17 | (11, 17) |

**Advantages of DDA Algorithm-**

The advantages of DDA Algorithm are-

- It is a simple algorithm.
- It is easy to implement.
- It avoids using the multiplication operation which is costly in terms of time complexity.

**Disadvantages of DDA Algorithm-**

The disadvantages of DDA Algorithm are-

- There is an extra overhead of using round off( ) function.
- Using round off( ) function increases time complexity of the algorithm.
- Resulted lines are not smooth because of round off( ) function.
- The points generated by this algorithm are not accurate.

To gain better understanding about DDA Algorithm,

**Next Article-****Bresenham Line Drawing Algorithm**

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