Instruction Pipelining | Performance

Instruction Pipelining-


Before you go through this article, make sure that you have gone through the previous article on Instruction Pipelining.


In instruction pipelining,

  • A form of parallelism called as instruction level parallelism is implemented.
  • Multiple instructions execute simultaneously.
  • The efficiency of pipelined execution is more than that of non-pipelined execution.


Performance of Pipelined Execution-


The following parameters serve as criterion to estimate the performance of pipelined execution-

  • Speed Up
  • Efficiency
  • Throughput


1. Speed Up-


It gives an idea of “how much faster” the pipelined execution is as compared to non-pipelined execution.

It is calculated as-



2. Efficiency-


The efficiency of pipelined execution is calculated as-



3. Throughput-


Throughput is defined as number of instructions executed per unit time.

It is calculated as-



Calculation of Important Parameters-


Let us learn how to calculate certain important parameters of pipelined architecture.


  • A pipelined architecture consisting of k-stage pipeline
  • Total number of instructions to be executed = n


Point-01: Calculating Cycle Time-


In pipelined architecture,

  • There is a global clock that synchronizes the working of all the stages.
  • Frequency of the clock is set such that all the stages are synchronized.
  • At the beginning of each clock cycle, each stage reads the data from its register and process it.
  • Cycle time is the value of one clock cycle.


There are two cases possible-


Case-01: All the stages offer same delay-


If all the stages offer same delay, then-

Cycle time = Delay offered by one stage including the delay due to its register


Case-02: All the stages do not offer same delay-


If all the stages do not offer same delay, then-

Cycle time = Maximum delay offered by any stage including the delay due to its register


Point-02: Calculating Frequency Of Clock-


Frequency of the clock (f) = 1 / Cycle time


Point-03: Calculating Non-Pipelined Execution Time-


In non-pipelined architecture,

  • The instructions execute one after the other.
  • The execution of a new instruction begins only after the previous instruction has executed completely.
  • So, number of clock cycles taken by each instruction = k clock cycles



Non-pipelined execution time

= Total number of instructions x Time taken to execute one instruction

= n x k clock cycles


Point-04: Calculating Pipelined Execution Time-


In pipelined architecture,

  • Multiple instructions execute parallely.
  • Number of clock cycles taken by the first instruction = k clock cycles
  • After first instruction has completely executed, one instruction comes out per clock cycle.
  • So, number of clock cycles taken by each remaining instruction = 1 clock cycle



Pipelined execution time

= Time taken to execute first instruction + Time taken to execute remaining instructions

= 1 x k clock cycles + (n-1) x 1 clock cycle

= (k + n – 1) clock cycles


Point-04: Calculating Speed Up-


Speed up

= Non-pipelined execution time / Pipelined execution time

= n x k clock cycles / (k + n – 1) clock cycles

= n x k / (k + n – 1)

= n x k / n + (k – 1)

= k / { 1 + (k – 1)/n }


  • For very large number of instructions, n→∞. Thus, speed up = k.
  • Practically, total number of instructions never tend to infinity.
  • Therefore, speed up is always less than number of stages in pipeline.


Important Notes-




  • The aim of pipelined architecture is to execute one complete instruction in one clock cycle.
  • In other words, the aim of pipelining is to maintain CPI ≅ 1.
  • Practically, it is not possible to achieve CPI ≅ 1 due to delays that get introduced due to registers.
  • Ideally, a pipelined architecture executes one complete instruction per clock cycle (CPI=1).




  • The maximum speed up that can be achieved is always equal to the number of stages.
  • This is achieved when efficiency becomes 100%.
  • Practically, efficiency is always less than 100%.
  • Therefore speed up is always less than number of stages in pipelined architecture.




Under ideal conditions,

  • One complete instruction is executed per clock cycle i.e. CPI = 1.
  • Speed up = Number of stages in pipelined architecture




  • Experiments show that 5 stage pipelined processor gives the best performance.




In case only one instruction has to be executed, then-

  • Non-pipelined execution gives better performance than pipelined execution.
  • This is because delays are introduced due to registers in pipelined architecture.
  • Thus, time taken to execute one instruction in non-pipelined architecture is less.




High efficiency of pipelined processor is achieved when-

  • All the stages are of equal duration.
  • There are no conditional branch instructions.
  • There are no interrupts.
  • There are no register and memory conflicts.

Performance degrades in absence of these conditions.


To gain better understanding about Pipelining in Computer Architecture,

Watch this Video Lecture


Next Article- Practice Problems On Pipelining


Get more notes and other study material of Computer Organization and Architecture.

Watch video lectures by visiting our YouTube channel LearnVidFun.

Instruction Pipelining | Performance
Article Name
Instruction Pipelining | Performance
Pipelining in Computer Architecture offers better performance than non-pipelined execution. Speed Up, Efficiency and Throughput serve as the criteria to estimate performance of pipelined execution.
Publisher Name
Gate Vidyalay
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