# Basic Blocks and Flow Graphs | Examples

## Basic Blocks-

 Basic block is a set of statements that always executes in a sequence one after the other.

The characteristics of basic blocks are-

• They do not contain any kind of jump statements in them.
• There is no possibility of branching or getting halt in the middle.
• All the statements execute in the same order they appear.
• They do not lose lose the flow control of the program.

### Example Of Basic Block-

Three Address Code for the expression a = b + c + d is-

Here,

• All the statements execute in a sequence one after the other.
• Thus, they form a basic block.

### Example Of Not A Basic Block-

Three Address Code for the expression If A<B then 1 else 0 is-

Here,

• The statements do not execute in a sequence one after the other.
• Thus, they do not form a basic block.

## Partitioning Intermediate Code Into Basic Blocks-

Any given code can be partitioned into basic blocks using the following rules-

Following statements of the code are called as Leaders

• First statement of the code.
• Statement that is a target of the conditional or unconditional goto statement.
• Statement that appears immediately after a goto statement.

### Rule-02: Determining Basic Blocks-

• The first statement of the code is called as the first leader.
• The block containing the first leader is called as Initial block.

## Flow Graphs-

 A flow graph is a directed graph with flow control information added to the basic blocks.

• The basic blocks serve as nodes of the flow graph.
• There is a directed edge from block B1 to block B2 if B2 appears immediately after B1 in the code.

## Problem-01:

Compute the basic blocks for the given three address statements-

(1) PROD = 0

(2) I = 1

(3) T2 = addr(A) – 4

(4) T4 = addr(B) – 4

(5) T1 = 4 x I

(6) T3 = T2[T1]

(7) T5 = T4[T1]

(8) T6 = T3 x T5

(9) PROD = PROD + T6

(10) I = I + 1

(11) IF I <=20 GOTO (5)

### Solution-

We have-

• PROD = 0 is a leader since first statement of the code is a leader.
• T1 = 4 x I is a leader since target of the conditional goto statement is a leader.

Now, the given code can be partitioned into two basic blocks as-

## Problem-02:

Draw a flow graph for the three address statements given in problem-01.

## Solution-

• Firstly, we compute the basic blocks (already done above).
• Secondly, we assign the flow control information.

The required flow graph is-

To gain better understanding about Basic Blocks and Flow Graphs,

Watch this Video Lecture

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Summary
Article Name
Basic Blocks and Flow Graphs | Examples
Description
Basic Blocks and Flow Graphs in Compiler design- Basic block is a set of statements that always executes in a sequence one after the other. Flow Graph is a directed graph with flow control information added to the basic blocks.
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Gate Vidyalay
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