Hamiltonian Graph | Hamiltonian Path | Hamiltonian Circuit

Types of Graphs-

 

Before you go through this article, make sure that you have gone through the previous article on various Types of Graphs in Graph Theory.

 

We have discussed-

  • A graph is a collection of vertices connected to each other through a set of edges.
  • The study of graphs is known as Graph Theory.

 

 

In this article, we will discuss about Hamiltonian Graphs.

 

Hamiltonian Graph-

 

A Hamiltonian graph may be defined as-

 

If there exists a closed walk in the connected graph that visits every vertex of the graph exactly once

(except starting vertex) without repeating the edges,

then such a graph is called as a Hamiltonian graph.

OR

Any connected graph that contains a Hamiltonian circuit is called as a Hamiltonian Graph.

 

Also Read- Euler Graph

 

Hamiltonian Graph Example-

 

The following graph is an example of a Hamiltonian graph-

 

 

Here,

  • This graph contains a closed walk ABCDEFA.
  • It visits every vertex of the graph exactly once except starting vertex.
  • The edges are not repeated during the walk.
  • Therefore, it is a Hamiltonian graph.

 

Alternatively, there exists a Hamiltonian circuit ABCDEFA in the above graph, therefore it is a Hamiltonian graph.

 

Hamiltonian Path-

 

  • If there exists a walk in the connected graph that visits every vertex of the graph exactly once without repeating the edges, then such a walk is called as a Hamiltonian path.

OR

  • If there exists a Path in the connected graph that contains all the vertices of the graph, then such a path is called as a Hamiltonian path.

 

NOTE

In Hamiltonian path, all the edges may or may not be covered but edges must not repeat.

 

Hamiltonian Path Examples-

 

Examples of Hamiltonian path are as follows-

 

 

Hamiltonian Circuit-

 

Hamiltonian circuit is also known as Hamiltonian Cycle.

 

  • If there exists a walk in the connected graph that visits every vertex of the graph exactly once (except starting vertex) without repeating the edges and returns to the starting vertex, then such a walk is called as a Hamiltonian circuit.

OR

  • If there exists a Cycle in the connected graph that contains all the vertices of the graph, then that cycle is called as a Hamiltonian circuit.

OR

  • A Hamiltonian path which starts and ends at the same vertex is called as a Hamiltonian circuit.

OR

  • A closed Hamiltonian path is called as a Hamiltonian circuit.

 

Hamiltonian Circuit Examples-

 

Examples of Hamiltonian circuit are as follows-

 

 

Important Notes-

 

  • Any Hamiltonian circuit can be converted to a Hamiltonian path by removing one of its edges.
  • Every graph that contains a Hamiltonian circuit also contains a Hamiltonian path but vice versa is not true.
  • There may exist more than one Hamiltonian paths and Hamiltonian circuits in a graph.

 

Also Read- Planar Graph

 

PRACTICE PROBLEMS BASED ON HAMILTONIAN GRAPHS IN GRAPH THEORY-

 

Problems-

 

Which of the following is / are Hamiltonian graphs?

 

 

Solutions-

 

A)

The graph neither contains a Hamiltonian path nor it contains a Hamiltonian circuit.

Since graph does not contain a Hamiltonian circuit, therefore It is not a Hamiltonian Graph.

 

B)

The graph neither contains a Hamiltonian path nor it contains a Hamiltonian circuit.

Since graph does not contain a Hamiltonian circuit, therefore It is not a Hamiltonian Graph.

 

C)

The graph contains both a Hamiltonian path (ABCDHGFE) and a Hamiltonian circuit (ABCDHGFEA).

Since graph contains a Hamiltonian circuit, therefore It is a Hamiltonian Graph.

 

D)

The graph contains both a Hamiltonian path (ABCDEFG) and a Hamiltonian circuit (ABCDEFGA).

Since graph contains a Hamiltonian circuit, therefore It is a Hamiltonian Graph.

 

E)

The graph neither contains a Hamiltonian path nor it contains a Hamiltonian circuit.

Since graph does not contain a Hamiltonian circuit, therefore It is not a Hamiltonian Graph.

 

F)

The graph contains both a Hamiltonian path (ABCDEFGHI) and a Hamiltonian circuit (ABCDEFGHIA)

Since graph contains a Hamiltonian circuit, therefore It is a Hamiltonian Graph.

 

To gain better understanding about Hamiltonian Graphs in Graph Theory,

Watch this Video Lecture

 

Next Article- Bipartite Graph

 

Get more notes and other study material of Graph Theory.

Watch video lectures by visiting our YouTube channel LearnVidFun.

Summary
Hamiltonian Graph | Hamiltonian Path | Hamiltonian Circuit
Article Name
Hamiltonian Graph | Hamiltonian Path | Hamiltonian Circuit
Description
Hamiltonian Graph in Graph Theory- A Hamiltonian Graph is a connected graph that contains a Hamiltonian Circuit. Hamiltonian Graph Examples. Hamiltonian Path and Hamiltonian Circuit- Hamiltonian path is a path in a connected graph that contains all the vertices of the graph. A closed Hamiltonian path is called as Hamiltonian Circuit.
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Gate Vidyalay
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